Stone Antennae: Analogs of electrostatic capacitance antennae
By Dennis Klocek
The use of stone towers in the ancient world went beyond the militaristic function of turrets on castles. In many cultures the stone tower was a kind of induction antenna for cosmic forces. Cosmic forces from the stars were generally held to be the source of fertility in the land. Towers or even upright stones were placed so as to direct cosmic forces into the ground. These induction towers have an analog today in technical devices known as electrostatic capcitance antennas. These antennas allow weak signals to be induced into devices like car radios. In the stone tower the formulation of the composition of the stones and their layering is alchemically significant and can be compared to the patterns of the flow of current in an induction antenna. To review the alchemical principles found in an electrostatic capacitance antenna, we can use the ancient polar processes of salt and sulfur.
A salt process is a cosmic process of precipitation in which planes of light energy are rayed inward into finite space from the starry realms. This, in modern terms, could be called a signal field. In the physics of radio theory, the signal field issues from one point, the transmitter. In the physics of the etheric, the signal field issues from the transmitters (the stars) which surround the earth in all directions. As they transmit their signals in wave planes of starlight, the earth is bathed in energetic plane waves that gradually interact within the energetic atmospheric envelope to create tension structures. The patterns of the tension structures are the formal motifs into which physical substances migrate. This entire process was known to the alchemists as precipitation on a grand scale in the universe. This process was called universal salt or sal. It is considered to be the descent of the forces of levity.
The opposite process is a gravity filled, earthly process of combustion in which lines of force radiate out from centers in energetic patterns. These patterns are present in conditions that have manifest as substances of matter that are once again seeking to ray out to the periphery. These are radiating energy patterns which, in modern terms, could be called currents. In modern radio and electromagnetic technology, current is carried by a conductor. A conductor is a substance whose magnetic and electrical make-up allows charges of energy to pass through it easily. In electrical theory currents are pushed along by sources of power. In the physics of the etheric, currents represent a combustion or digestion of power. The thermal and magnetic fields, which accompany a current of electricity in a wire, are by-products of the digestion (consumption) of the force (voltage) of electricity. Currents tend to travel along surfaces rather than crossing them; for instance they bounce inside a wire reflecting off the inner surface of the wire. This is considered by some theorists to be a true picture of conduction; force bouncing along a membrane or surface created by a discontinuity or differential between varying conditions of substances. It is through the action of currents that substance migrates into the energetic sheaths formed by the planes of light in the salt process. The sulfur process is found wherever there is a unifying flowing together of substance to and from points of density through differential fields. The alchemy of salt and sulfur is responsible for an infinite multitude of reactions in energetic and physical phenomena. (Chemistry/Physics/Electro-magnetism)
The basic polarities of salt and sulfur are brought into interaction by the arising of a third force between the poles. This third force is known as the mercury process. It is characterized as a rhythmic interplay of the two polarities. In the physics of the Leyden jar, for example, a weak charge is conducted through metal plates. The current flowing through the plates is a sulfur process. The glass insulator (the dielectric) causes the charge to oscillate between the two plates. First one plate has the charge of positive energy, then this charge breaks through the glass, being attracted by the negative charge in the other plate. The dielectric repulsion of the glass is the salt (dividing) process. The flow of current from the positive plate to the negative plate is the sulfur (uniting) process. The oscillation of the charge from one side of the glass to the other is a mercury process. As the mercury continues to rhythmically pass the charges from positive to negative, a third property arises in the glass itself. This property is known as induction. Glass, being an insulator (salt), will not discharge into a current. The elastic, rhythmic oscillation of the mercury process, however, “stretches” the glass so that a free space is formed between its layers of inner silica membranes. It is between these membranes that the oscillating charge is inducted and slowly builds in power. With such an oscillating capacitor, a very high voltage can be induced in the glass, which normally repels electric charges as a dielectric. (salt = separation)
From these examples, we can construct a diagram of alchemical forces in a Leyden jar:
Salt – Silica – Insulation
Mercury – Oscillation – Induction
Sulfur – Metal – Conduction
Induction brings to birth a new force that can be amplified and stored. The principle of induction is a magical state wherein the mercury process causes power amplification without requiring an increase in the mechanical force exerted for power generation.
In the mineral world, just as there are many substances which conduct electricity and magnetism, there are many substances that repel electricity and magnetism. These repelling substances are insulators. Whether or not an insulator produces induction, depends a great deal upon its inner structure and the ratio of insulating to conducting elements in the compounds. Taking a look at the chemistry of some basic rocks from an alchemical viewpoint might serve to illustrate this idea. Granite is as archetypal rock. Many rocks have their origins in the granite. The three major constituents of granite are silica quartz, mica, and feldspar. If a granite has much silica it is classified as acidic.In the context of the Leyden jar with its metal plates as conductors the silica was the salt pole. However, in the context of the formation of granite the silica, being the acid side of the mixture is a levity carrying constituent of the rock. That makes the silica in a granite formation alchemically sulf. If a granite has much feldspar, it is classified as basic.The bases are the gravity pole of the acid / base polarity. This makes the feldspars sal in the granite rock. This classification is an approximate image of the three major soil elements of calcium, silica, and clay. The calcium is the basic or feldspathicic pole, the silica is the acid or quartz pole. Alchemically, the calcium/felspar pole is sal and the silica/quartz is sulf. From this classification, we could construct the following diagram.
Sal – Calcium Process – Felspars ]
Mercury – Clay Process – Micas –] Dielectric Insulators
Sulf – Silica Process – Quartzes ]
Such a configuration is a general scheme that could be modified in a number of ways but it provides a beginning from which to build.
Electrically, mica, silica, and felspar are dielectric; that is they are insulators. We have said earlier that silica is used as an insulator, but for absolutely the best dielectric insulator, the electronic industry uses mica. Mica, chemically, is a silicate. That means it has a good amount of silica in it as a compound. This gives it a dielectric property but it is the form of the mica that makes it such a powerful dielectric. Mica occurs in very thin sheets, which, in the form of the mineral muscovite, are as transparent as glass. A rock rich in muscovite mica is composed of many thousands of layers of thin siliceous leaves layered one on top of the other. The extremely fine layers serve as perfect insulators to a current. They are an image of the salt/silica process coming in from the periphery of space to form lattices of energetic planes on which the mineral world is based. The finely layered lattice of mica is even more efficient at insulation than a pure silica crystal. This makes mica a natural dielectric capacitor. We have seen, however, that a capacitor needs a mercury element or current to set up the electrostatic oscillation. From our diagram of granite and the soil, we see mica/clay as the mercury process. Perhaps, now we could diagram mica also in alchemical terms to picture the activity.
Sal – Potash/Calcium ]
Mercury – Alumina/clay/iron ] Mica
Sulf – Silica ]
From the diagram, we can see that mica (clay), as a mercury force in the soil, is itself a threefold wholeness. It is a silicate and so it has a strong salt (insulative) power. It has iron, which is a ferromagnetic conductor of electricity and is also highly inductive to magnetism (para magnetic). The potash content of mica is also very paramagnetic. In the mercury place in mica, we find the curious metal aluminum, which is known to science as an amphoteric. This means that it unites and harmonizes disparate elements within itself. From this, we can see in mica a compound rock, which is a dynamic (mercury) dielectric (insulating) paramagnetic (conducting) substance. The thin layers in the mica make it a perfect form alternately to conduct and insulate electromagnetic fields in a perpetual oscillation needed to induce capacitance from weak field signals. In short, mica is a perfect dielectric/paramagnetic capacitor. As such, it has a wide usage in capacitors in the electronics industry.
One might ask what this all has to do with agriculture. To answer this, we need to consider the forces of electricity and magnetism from a point of view that is different from modern technical science. In electronic technology as we know it, the forces of electricity and magnetism are consumed for their power. By cutting field lines, and pushing currents along wires, much energy is wasted in the form of heat and ambient electromagnetic field radiation. From one point of view, this is a necessary sacrifice in order to have the electric power produce work. From another point of view, the problems of ELF pollution and related phenomena are symptomatic of the consuming, destructive techniques of our present technology.
According to the insights of Rudolf Steiner, the forces of electricity and magnetism as we use them in technology today are shadows of the pure forces constantly being rayed into the earth and its atmosphere from the stars and the planets. The stellar, solar, and planetary forces present in the solar wind and various cosmic rays, produce the animating, life giving, levity force that enables water to rise from the earth and form clouds, plants to overcome gravity and lift tons of water to impossible heights, and living organisms to grow, move, feel sensations, and reproduce. Chemicals, minerals, and electric currents can be amplified but they cannot grow. Paradoxically, many tests and experiments have shown conclusively that tissues and organism contain and respond to electrical and magnetic potentials as an accompaniment to their life process. The question can be asked, “Is the electricity in a wire the same as the electricity in a living being?” Some researchers feel that they are the same thing. Other research documents the life diminishing qualities of electromagnetic fields. What is correct?
Electric phenomena fall into two basic categories. The most technologically developed type of electric force is current electricity. A flow of current diminishes the stored voltage or capacity of an electrostatic field. The other type of electricity is static electricity (electrostatic force). Electrostatically charged fields can have great power but since there is no current produced, there is no conduction and, therefore, no strong life threatening force in these klinds of fields. Unfortunately, there is also little power we can get out of static electricity in our present technology. There are many applications of electrostatics such as ink jet printing but there are no devices that can use electrostatic fields for propulsion in modern technology.
By contrast, ancient technology, which was not based upon the production of currents pushed through wires, used the inductive capacities of stones to amplify weak stellar and planetary forces and condense them for use in agriculture. From the use of gemstones on crowns, scepters, and breastplates, to the construction of pyramids, obelisks, towers, mounds, and stone circles out of common rock, the ancient world found the use and propagation of electrostatic fields to be a source of renewal and life enhancing forces for their crops, animals, and themselves.
Stone structures of the utmost subtlety and mathematical precision are found in all ancient cultures far back into megalithic times. Most show strong orientation to solar or lunar coordinates. Some, like the stone towers in Ireland and England are terrestrial maps of circumpolar and zodiacal star groups. All these works, from the most primitive to the most sophisticated, share in common the layering of stones in precise mathematical forms.
This author, in hopes of researching the use of stone structures as capacitance antennas for solar and lunar forces, has constructed several stone towers in a garden. The towers are composed of alternate layers of a granitic rock (diorite) and a finely layered micaschist with pure silica layered between the mica layers. The diorite layers are used for their insulative properties. The micaschist layers of rock are used for the dielectric, paramagnetic properties. Together, they form a stone paramagnetic, dielectric capacitor antenna. In theory, such an arrangement should induce weak solar and lunar fields and amplify and store them without creating currents.
We could ask, “Are solar and lunar forces the same as electrostatic forces?” Modern science recognizes that the cosmic forces of the sun have electric and magnetic properties. The scientific instruments used to measure such weak pulses of these energies must be very delicate. The life forces of plants have aspects that closely resemble magnetism and electricity and yet, in other ways are not truly electromagnetic. As said earlier, electricity and magnetism, as we use them, are considered to be the shadows of the forces of life by anthroposophical science. This would mean that, in order for shadows to appear, I must have the thing that casts the shadow also. The life force casts the shadows of its activity into the forms of what our technology consumes as electricity and magnetism.
It is clear that we are not speaking here of absolute states but of a metamorphosis of forces. Can there be a technology designed which does not enslave the forces of the sun and planets and drive them down into the shadow world to do our work? These same cosmic forces, intelligently focused into the soil of the earth, can lift the electric and magnetic forces of the cosmos into life and light. A technology based upon the amplification and condensation of cosmic forces has been part of the ancient world view, through the construction of the stone antennae for agricultural purposes. It is hoped that this benign technology can once again become part of our work with the earth into our future.
NOTES ON STONE ANTENNAE CONSTRUCTION
Research performed by Karl Jansky in 1932 has established the length of a solar radio wave at 14.6 meters. If we wish to capture a signal with an antennae, then it is necessary to create a harmonic between the length of the signal wave and the height (length) of the antenna. The simplest relationship would be one-to-one. This would, of necessity, create the need for a tower over forty feet tall. Celtic round towers are in existence which are actually almost twice that height. This would make them good receptors to solar radio waves.
In the construction of an antenna, however, there are some other variables that should come into consideration. One variable is that the length of an antenna is more effective if it is not a whole wave-length long, but only a fraction (usually one half) the length of the wave. The reason for this is that the signal can be found to resonate back and forth in the antenna creating amplifying interference patterns. If the length of an antenna is exactly _ the length of the wave it is trying to intercept, then the incoming waves of the signal meet the reflecting waves in the antenna at exact harmonic intervals. That is, the peaks and troughs of the waves will be in the same places no matter whether the wave is coming in from the source or is moving in the antenna itself. This creates what physicists call a standing wave and it greatly enhances the strength of reception of the signal. Nicholas Tesla found in his research into inductive capacitance; that an antenna shows most induction when it is tuned to one quarter (.25) length of the signal. Since the objective of the stone antenna is to increase induction of solar waves, the length of _ x 14.6 meters was chosen as the basic height of the antenna. This makes an ideal antenna height for solar induction of 3.6 meters or 11.5 feet.
There are, however, other parameters that further modify this tower height. It is well known that the ideal height of an antenna is very dependent upon the material from which the antenna is constructed. Most materials either conduct or insulate against electricity. Some materials do both and are said to be semi-conductors. Silver or copper are very good conductors. They have very little resistance or dielectric (electrically repelling) properties. This low dielectric capacity is a constant of these materials. It is expressed by a number. A perfect conductor shows a dielectric constant of 0. This means that it will constantly conduct electricity with no dielectric resistance. By contrast, micaschist, which is very insulative, has a dielectric constant of 16. (See Psychical Physics by S.W. Tromp) In antenna theory, the ideal length of the antenna at unity, or with a dielectric constant of 0, is modified by the antenna being constructed of a material with a higher dielectric constant. An antenna length needs to be divided by the dielectric constant of the material of the antenna. This gives a picture of the true action of the antenna. In this instance, the ideal length of _ of a solar wave of 14.6 meters is 3.6 or 11.52 feet. The dielectric constant of the particular stone (quartz monzonite) is 6. The resulting length of the stone antenna for _ solar wave is 1.96 feet or 23.16 inches. The first section of the antenna was made in a gentle cone shape going from 23 inches at the base to 14 inches at the top. It was constructed of granite blocks and mortar to a golden section (see accompanying sheet) height of 38 inches. It was based upon the ground plan of a circle. Beneath the base, a chamber was constructed to act as a condenser for the charge collected by the antenna. The condenser was made by digging a hole that roughly approximated the shape of the lower section of the antenna. This was layered up with mortar and blocks of micaschist rock with a high dielectric constant (16). This formed a waterproof chamber to keep the inner contents of the condenser dry. This is necessary in order to hold a charge. This chamber was filled with thin flakes of micaschist and granite dipped in hot beeswax to make condenser plates capable of holding a charge. The flakes were placed in the chamber along the lines of magnetic north. The entire condenser had peat moss placed between the waxed rocks for further condensing and insulating properties. When these condenser rocks filled the hole, a foundation ring was cast in concrete and blocks of granite were formed into circles. The whole wall of the lower stage took six courses of granite block to reach a height of 38 inches.
At this point, a second smaller course was started to create what is known in antenna design as a wave guide. A wave guide is most often a hollow tube at the neck of a dish shaped antenna which serves the purpose of intensifying and directing the signal. Since the wave guide is often the part of an antenna which determines its effectiveness, much thought was given to the proper design structures. After experimentation for a year with the antenna with various wave guides, a form was arrived at which seems to provide amplification with no conduction to diminish the life forces in the signal. To do this, I referred to other researchers for the form of the wave guides themselves. I made sheet metal cones in the harmonic relationships to the tower. The well-known dowser, Vern Cameron, did many experiments with such sheet metal cones and found them to be very effective in focusing field energies. The cones have a 90 degree apex and are closed across the opening with sheet metal riveted in place. They are sprayed with a copper metal flake lacquer on all surfaces before they are constructed. When placed in a series where the apex of one touches the base of another, cones of energy can be dowsed coming off of the tips for a considerable distance. (See the Cameron Aurameter BSRF Books) Three of these cones were placed in the upper chamber. The diameter of each cone was a Phi harmonic of the length of the upper section of the antenna, which was 23 inches high. This, in itself, is a Phi harmonic of the 38 inch height of the base. These lengths were chosen to increase the induction in the antenna and wave guides. The three wave guides had successive diameters of 9 _, 6 _, 4 _ inches and a 90 degree apex. The largest cone was lowered, point down, through the opening of the tower at the 38 inch level so that it came to rest at the bottom of the upper section of the tower. This was mortared in and small blocks of granite were placed to form a wall above it. The next smaller cone was placed so that its point just touched the base of the lower cone. The next smaller size was placed in the same way on top of the middle cone. Before they were mortared in, the space between the cones was filled with peat moss. This, in effect, formed an accumulator for etheric forces similar to the principle of the orgone accumulator of Wilhelm Reich. When the wave guide was completed, three cones and their insulators lay within the upper section. A domed capstone was cast and placed on the top and the antenna was completed.
A SERPENTINE ANTENNA
In searching for an optimal rock from which an antenna could be constructed, the unique properties of serpentine were researched. Serpentine and its related form, mariposite are members of the greenstone family of minerals. These minerals have an abundance of magnesium and silica and often contain iron. They are very susceptible to magnetism. This and the high magnesium content were why they were chosen for study. The reasoning was that they would radiate magnesium (a basic plant salt) and be a good receptor for solar waves.
A tower was built at the South end of a garden bed according to the following dimensions. The bottom section was 39 inches tall and 22 inches wide at the base. The middle section was 22 inches tall and 18 inches wide tapering to 13 inches. The top section was 13 inches tall and was capped with a large quartz crystal. The overall appearance gave the impression of a large, leafy stalk because the bottom section was layered up to make a smooth surface. The middle section was layered up to allow the flakes of serpentine to project out like leaves. The upper section was a narrow smooth cylinder topped with what could be described as an inflorescence in the middle of which sat the crystal.
The tower sat all summer at the end of a bed of tomatoes. Early on, it was noticed that the tomatoes at the end near the tower climbed up the tower for support. They bore large and very flavorful tomatoes all summer and on into the late fall. As winter approached, the tomatoes began to embrace the tower with strong vertical shoots that arose in profusion from the top branches. The appearance of the tomatoes resembled a fruit tree covered with suckers in the upper branches. Pigweeds, which germinated near the base of the tower, formed strong vertical stalks and quickly went to seed.
Throughout the summer, my wife commented on the prolific and long lived blooms on her flowers a few beds from the tower. Phlox, coreopsis, and snapdragons showed an abundance of long stemmed flowers that bloomed long after their normal blooming periods. Since we had shifted from horse manure to sheep manure for our compost, we wondered if this was the cause of the strong flower gesture that we observed.
In fall, it was time to set out the cabbage, Chinese cabbage and other brassicas. The tomato bed became a Chinese cabbage bed, and nearby beds were placed so that the cabbages and kale could be in the field of the stone tower. Last year, using the same source of sheep manure, our cabbages and Chinese cabbages were truly marvelous. They had large, round, firm heads that grew quickly to size and showed no sign of deterioration when left standing. Since we were using the same type of compost, we anticipated a similar response. Much to our dismay, the Chinese cabbage developed its rosettes slowly and began to bolt before any heads formed. The cabbages, too, developed slowly in the rosette and began to show a form gesture that resembled a brussels sprout; a long stem and pointed leaves instead of a squat stalk with rounded leaves. Sadly, kale and broccoli, likewise, shared the “light” gesture of a plant moving into flower. Last year, the broccoli averaged 16 inches across the head. This year, the main head reached a maximum of 8 inches when the whole plant “exploded” into smaller “rabb” heads. Manure teas failed to turn the cabbage heads away from the urge to flower.
One day while gathering leeks and beets for a pot of soup, the shape of a beet made a strong impression. Instead of a full, broad leaf from top to bottom, the beet produced a leaf that was 7/8 stem with a little “flag” of leaf at the top. I stood in amazement when this “stemmed” leaf lay next to the tallest leek to ever come out of our garden. The “normal” leek gesture from our garden is a broad, squat heavy leek. Here lay a pale silver leek, slim and taught, rising 18 inches from the soil before a leaf broke out into space. I turned and looked at the stiletto shape of the serpentine tower and many ideas and impressions clicked into place.
The image that arose was that a plant in the vegetative phase of its development is in the mode of capacitance, that is, it is storing energies. The swelling of a head of cabbage is a direct image of the description that an electric engineer would use to describe the oscillating condenser. In the condenser, the energy is passed in a coil and then through an insulator and the charge “swells” the capacity of the insulator that takes on greater electrostatic power. (voltage) The cabbage focuses its growth potential around the stem instead of letting it discharge into a flower stalk
By constructing a three-tiered tower of a highly conductive material such as serpentine, it appeared as if I had successfully induced a flowering gesture into my winter cabbages. They were disinclined to use the compost but were urged to discharge their energies into the production of flowers.
In botanical studies of the flora of California, there is a specialized study known as serpentine flora. Only a very narrow group of plants will live over serpentine. Since the state rock of California is serpentine, there is ample opportunity to study the gestures of plants in the wild. What emerges from such a study confirms the observations made in our garden. The flora is overwhelmingly “light” flora. The digger pine, a characteristic species, shows the exact gesture that was seen in the leek/beet plants. “Serpentine” bushes, shrubs, and wildflowers are almost characteristic of desert flora with straight stalks and spikes of profuse flowers. Serpentine is a rock characteristic of fracture zones in the earth where forces from below rise rapidly to the surface along faults. Serpentine is a common rock in the volcanic fracture zones of the west foothill slopes of the Sierras where it alternates in long ridges with dielectric granite and quartz monzonite bedrock of the mountains above the foothills. Seen in this perspective, one can imagine the currents running along the insulating granite where the magnetic conducting serpentine creates faults for earthquakes. The earth in these zones, then, appears like a massive Leyden jar. The plants growing on the granite soils show broader more vegetative gestures than the serpentine flora. From these observations, the forces raying out of the antenna made of serpentine became “visible”.
Needless to say, in order to get the cabbages to grow properly, the serpentine antenna was taken apart. In its place, went a granite/diorite antenna with a capacitance chamber built into the ground below it. All was not lost, however, because the stages of the serpentine antenna came apart after a few sledgehammer blows. They were placed upright among the flowers in the flower beds, where their light gesture can work out into the surrounding space for the benefit of the flowers.
Dennis Klocek, MFA, is co-founder of the Coros Institute and a faculty member at Rudolf Steiner College. He is the author of nine books, including the newly released Colors of the Soul; Esoteric Physiology and also Sacred Agriculture: The Alchemy of Biodynamics. Dennis is also an international lecturer.